PloS one

Endothelin-1 in paraventricular nucleus modulates cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity in rats.

PMID 22815806


Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is a positive-feedback, sympathoexcitatory reflex. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an important component of the central neurocircuitry of the CSAR. The present study is designed to determine whether endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the PVN modulates the CSAR and sympathetic activity, and whether superoxide anions are involved in modulating the effects of ET-1 in the PVN in rats. In anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats with cervical vagotomy and sinoaortic denervation, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded. The CSAR was evaluated by the responses of the RSNA and MAP to epicardial application of capsaicin. Microinjection of ET-1 into the bilateral PVN dose-dependently enhanced the CSAR, increased the baseline RSNA and MAP. The effects of ET-1 were blocked by PVN pretreatment with the ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ-123. However, BQ-123 alone had no significant effects on the CSAR, the baseline RSNA and MAP. Bilateral PVN pretreatment with either superoxide anion scavenger tempol or polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD) inhibited the effects of ET-1 on the CSAR, RSNA and MAP. Microinjection of ET-1 into the PVN increased the superoxide anion level in the PVN, which was abolished by PVN pretreatment with BQ-123. Epicardial application of capsaicin increased superoxide anion level in PVN which was further enhanced by PVN pretreatment with ET-1. Exogenous activation of ET(A) receptors with ET-1 in the PVN enhances the CSAR, increases RSNA and MAP. Superoxide anions in PVN are involved in the effects of ET-1 in the PVN.

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BQ-123, ≥99%, sodium salt, lyophilized powder
C31H41N6O7 Na