Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems

Metabolism and disposition of [14C]n-butyl-p-hydroxybenzoate in male and female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats following oral administration and dermal application.

PMID 22830980


n-Butyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (n-butylparaben, BPB) is an antioxidant used in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. This study investigated the disposition of ring-labelled [(14)C]BPB in Harlan Sprague Dawley rats, and in rat and human hepatocytes. BPB was rapidly cleared in hepatocytes from rat (t(1/2) = 3-4 min) and human (t(1/2) = 20-30 min). The major metabolites detected in rat hepatocytes were hydroxybenzoic acid and in human hepatocytes were hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxyhippuric acid. [(14)C]BPB was administered to male rats orally at 10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg, intravenously at 10 mg/kg and dermally at 10 and 100 mg/kg; female rats were administered oral doses at 10 mg/kg. Oral doses of BPB were well-absorbed (>83%) and eliminated chiefly in urine (83-84%); ≤ 1% of the radioactivity remained in tissues at 24 h or 72 h after dosing. About 4% and 8%, respectively, of 100 mg/kg dermal doses were absorbed in 24 h and 72 h, and about 50% of a 10 mg/kg dose was absorbed in 72 h. Metabolites detected in urine included those previously reported, BPB-glucuronide, BPB-sulfate, hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxyhippuric acid, but also novel metabolites arising from ring hydroxylation followed by glucuronidation and sulfation.

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PHR1022 Butylparaben, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material