Journal of pharmacological sciences

Paclitaxel-induced endothelial dysfunction in living rats is prevented by nicorandil via reduction of oxidative stress.

PMID 22850598


Paclitaxel-eluting stents dramatically reduce rates of in-stent restenosis; however, paclitaxel is known to lead to endothelial dysfunction. Protective effects of nicorandil on paclitaxel-induced endothelial dysfunction by examining flow-mediated dilation (FMD) were investigated in anesthetized rats. After 7-day osmotic infusion of paclitaxel (5 mg/kg per day), FMD was measured by high-resolution ultrasound in the femoral artery of living rats. Paclitaxel significantly reduced FMD (21.6% ± 3.2% to 7.1% ± 1.7%); this reduction was prevented by co-treatment with nicorandil (15 mg/kg per day), while paclitaxel did not affect nitroglycerin-induced vasodilation. Diazoxide and tempol, but not isosorbide dinitrate, had an effect similar to nicorandil in preventing paclitaxel-induced decrease in FMD. Nicorandil significantly prevented paclitaxel-induced reduction in acetylcholine-induced vasodilation. On the underling mechanisms, paclitaxel increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (dihydrorhodamine 123, DCF fluorescence intensity) and NADPH oxidase (p47(phox), gp91(phox) mRNA) in arteries and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), while paclitaxel reduced nitric oxide (NO) release (DAF-2 fluorescence intensity), but not endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in HCAECs. Nicorandil prevented the increased ROS production in arteries and HCAECs, which was 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD)-sensitive but 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ)-resistant, without significant effect on the reduced NO release. In conclusion, nicorandil prevents paclitaxel-induced endothelial dysfunction, which may be brought by improved NO bioavailability due to the reduction of oxidative stress via K(ATP) channel activation.

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Nicorandil, ≥98% (HPLC)