Acta paediatrica Japonica : Overseas edition

Carnitine deficiency in inherited organic acid disorders and Reye syndrome.

PMID 2288224


A large quantity of propionylcarnitine in the urine of patients with propionic acidemia and methylmalonic aciduria was demonstrated. The amount excreted depended on the administered L-carnitine dose from 25 to 75 mg/kg/day. A high level of propionylcarnitine was also detected in the amniotic fluid of fetuses at risk of methylmalonic aciduria. Glutaric aciduria type 1 was characterized by excessive urinary excretion of glutarylcarnitine. In a neonate with glutaric aciduria type 2, several specific acylcarnitines were detected in the urine. These included isovaleryl-, acetyl-, isobutyryl-, and butyrylcarnitine as major carnitine esters and glutaryl-, and octanoylcarnitine as minor components. However, the pattern of acylcarnitines excreted changed from isovalerylcarnitine (via leucine) to isobutyrylcarnitine (via valine) during early life. In patients diagnosed as Reye syndrome, tissue carnitine deficiency was not always recognized and no decrease in the free/total carnitine ratio was found in the liver or muscle. The clinical and pathophysiological manifestations seen in these disorders are considered to relate to mitochondrial activity. Therefore, it is necessary to measure acylcarnitine fractions in the urine in order to obtain more precise information about mitochondrial function because carnitine and acylcarnitine compounds may express the metabolic state of mitochondria.

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Isobutyryl-L-carnitine, ≥97.0% (TLC)