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Biological trace element research

The dual-effects of LaCl₃ on the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells.


PMID 22886987

Abstract

A series of experimental methods including 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurement, alizarin red S stain and measurement, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis were employed to assess the effects of LaCl₃ on the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization of a murine preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 at cell and molecular levels. The results indicated that LaCl₃ had dual effects on the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells. First, LaCl₃ promoted the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells at lower concentrations, then had no effects and further turned to inhibit the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells with increasing concentrations. The expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), ALP, bone sialoprotein (BSP), collagen I (Col I), and osteocalcin (OCN) genes was upregulated in the presence of 0.0001 and 0.1 μM LaCl₃, but these genes were downregulated in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 1,000 μM LaCl₃. In addition, the expression of BMP2, Runx2, and OCN proteins was promoted by LaCl₃ at the concentration of 0.0001 μM, but these proteins were downregulated after 1,000 μM LaCl₃ treatment. The results suggest that LaCl₃ likely up- or downregulates the expression of Runx2, which subsequently up- or downregulates osteoblasts marker genes Col I and BMP2 at early stages and ALP and OCN at later stages of differentiation, thus causes to promote or inhibit the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results will be helpful for understanding the mechanisms of bone metabolism and application of lanthanum-based compounds in the future.