Cardiovascular drugs and therapy

Dofetilide promotes repolarization abnormalities in perfused Guinea-pig heart.

PMID 22918600


Dofetilide is class III antiarrhythmic agent which prolongs cardiac action potential duration because of selective inhibition of I (Kr), the rapid component of the delayed rectifier K(+) current. Although clinical studies reported on proarrhythmic risk associated with dofetilide treatment, the contributing electrophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study was designed to determine if dofetilide-induced proarrhythmia may be attributed to abnormalities in ventricular repolarization and refractoriness. The monophasic action potential duration and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed at distinct epicardial and endocardial sites along with volume-conducted ECG recordings in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations. Dofetilide was found to produce the reverse rate-dependent prolongation of ventricular repolarization, increased the steepness of action potential duration rate adaptation, and amplified transepicardial variability in electrical restitution kinetics. Dofetilide also prolonged the T peak-to-end interval on ECG, and elicited a greater prolongation of endocardial than epicardial ERP, thereby increasing transmural dispersion of refractoriness. At epicardium, dofetilide prolonged action potential duration to a greater extent than ERP, thus extending the critical interval for ventricular re-excitation. This change was associated with triangulation of epicardial action potential because of greater dofetilide-induced prolonging effect at 90 % than 30 % repolarization. Premature ectopic beats and spontaneous short-lasting episodes of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia were observed in 44 % of dofetilide-treated heart preparations. Proarrhythmic potential of dofetilide in guinea-pig heart is attributed to steepened electrical restitution, increased transepicardial variability in electrical restitution kinetics, amplified transmural dispersion of refractoriness, increased critical interval for ventricular re-excitation, and triangulation of epicardial action potential.

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Dofetilide, ≥98% (HPLC)