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ACS nano

Protein capsules assembled via isobutyramide grafts: sequential growth, biofunctionalization, and cellular uptake.


PMID 22950440

Abstract

We report the sequential assembly of proteins via the alternating physical adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) and chemical grafting with isobutyramide (IBAM) or bromoisobutyramide (BrIBAM) groups. This approach, performed on silica template particles, leads to the formation of noncovalent protein films with controlled growth at the nanometer scale. Further, after template removal, hollow protein capsules with tunable wall thicknesses and high mechanical stability are obtained. The use of BrIBAM, compared to IBAM grafts, leads to significantly thicker capsule walls, highlighting the influence of the bromine atoms in the assembly process, which is discussed in terms of a theoretical model of noncovalent interactions. Another feature of the process is the possibility to functionalize the HSA capsules with other biologically active macromolecules, including enzymes, polysaccharides, or DNA plasmids, demonstrating the versatility of this approach. We also report that BrIBAM-HSA and IBAM-HSA capsules display negligible cytotoxicity in vitro with HeLa cells and that their cellular uptake is dependent on the thickness of the capsule walls. These findings support the potential use of these protein capsules in tailored biological applications such as drug delivery.

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144436
Isobutyramide, 99%
C4H9NO