Journal of agricultural and food chemistry

Identification and mode of action of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-hmf) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA) as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors in vinegars.

PMID 22957895


Vinegars have been used as an alternative remedy for treating gout, but the scientific basis remains to be elucidated. In this study, seven commercial vinegars and one laboratory-prepared red-koji vinegar were evaluated for the inhibitory activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), a critical enzyme catalyzing uric acid formation. Red-koji vinegar exhibited potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity and was used for isolating active compounds. The substances under two peaks with XOI activity from HPLC were identified as 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA), by LC-MS-MS and NMR. The XO half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 5-HMF and MTCA were 168 and 860 μg/mL, respectively. In further mode-of-action analysis, the inhibitory mechanism of each compound was elucidated at the IC(50) level in the presence of various concentrations of xanthine as the substrate. The following Michaelis-Menten kinetics analysis of XO inhibition revealed uncompetitive and competitive patterns for 5-HMF and MTCA, respectively.

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