Detection of common mutations in the GALT gene through ARMS.

PMID 22963887


Type I galactosemia is an inborn error resulting from mutations on both alleles of the GALT gene, which leads to the absence or deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltranseferase (GALT), the second of three enzymes catalyzing the conversion of galactose into glucose. On the basis of residual GALT activity, Type I galactosemia is classified into severe "Classical" and mild "Duarte" phenotypes. Classical galactosemia is frequently associated with S135L, Q188R and K285N mutations in the GALT gene. The functionally neutral N314D variation in the GALT gene is associated with Duarte galactosemia and is widespread among various worldwide populations. The present study aimed at detecting S135L, Q188R and K285N mutations and the N314D variant in the GALT gene by PCR using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). ARMS assays were established using standard DNA samples and were used for 8 galactosemia patients and 190 unrelated normal subjects all of Pakistani origin. S135L and K285N mutations were present neither in galactosemia patients nor in normal subjects. Only one galactosemia patient carried Q188R mutation that was in homozygous state. However, the N314D variant was frequently found both in affected (7 out of 16 alleles) and normal subjects (55 out of 380 alleles). This finding indicates that Duarte allele D314 might be far more common in Pakistani population than in European and North American ones.