Experimental cell research

S632A3, a new glutarimide antibiotic, suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory responses via inhibiting the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β.

PMID 22975730


Inflammatory mediators including inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) contribute to the course of a variety of inflammatory diseases. S632A3 is a new member of the glutarimide antibiotics isolated from a cultured broth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus S632 with a potent NF-κB inhibitory activity. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying molecular mechanism of S632A3 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. S632A3 concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production through the suppression of iNOS and COX-2 at gene transcription levels. In addition, S632A3 suppressed NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses by inhibiting the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), while the activation of IκB kinase (IKK) complex was unaffected. S632A3 suppressed NF-κB activity by differentially affecting the CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and NF-κB p65 interacting with the coactivator CBP (CREB binding protein). S632A3 also inhibited GSK-3β-elicited iNOS and COX-2 expression. Moreover, S632A3 was shown to inhibit the activation of ASK1 (Apoptosis-signal regulating kinase 1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, therefore attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activity in macrophages. Furthermore, S632A3 significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production while increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Our study thus provides a molecular mechanism by which S632A3 inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response in macrophages through interfering with the activation of GSK-3β and ASK1-p38 signaling.

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Glutarimide, 98%
NQDI-1, ≥98% (HPLC)