Environmental science and pollution research international

Batch and continuous biodegradation of Amaranth in plain distilled water by P. aeruginosa BCH and toxicological scrutiny using oxidative stress studies.

PMID 22996819


Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa BCH was able to degrade naphthylaminesulfonic azo dye Amaranth in plain distilled water within 6 h at 50 mg l(-1) dye concentration. Studies were carried out to find the optimum physical conditions and which came out to be pH 7 and temperature 30 °C. Amaranth could also be decolorized at concentration 500 mg l(-1). Presence of Zn and Hg ions could strongly slow down the decolorization process, whereas decolorization progressed rapidly in presence of Mn. Decolorization rate was increased with increasing cell mass. Induction in intracellular and extracellular activities of tyrosinase and NADH-DCIP reductase along with intracellular laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase indicated their co-ordinate action during dye biodegradation. Up-flow bioreactor studies with alginate immobilized cells proved the capability of strain to degrade Amaranth in continuous process at 20 ml h(-1) flow rate. Various analytical studies viz.--HPLC, HPTLC, and FTIR gave the confirmation that decolorization was due to biodegradation. From GC-MS analysis, various metabolites were detected, and possible degradation pathway was predicted. Toxicity studies carried out with Allium cepa L. through the assessment of various antioxidant enzymes viz. sulphur oxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase along with estimation of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels conclusively demonstrated that oxidative stress was generated by Amaranth.

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