Rare pediatric rhino-orbital infection caused by Saksenaea vasiformis.

PMID 23001544


Rhinosinusitis infection due to Saksenaea vasiformis is extremely rare. The present case describes a rhino-orbital infection in a 21-month-old Chadian immunocompetent male child with a 2-month history of excessive tearing from the right eye, followed by swelling of the right upper and lower eye lids, associated with right facial swelling and dark coloration surrounding the lower eye lid. Coronal computed tomography (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses showed opacification of the right nasal cavities with extension to the orbit. Non-septate fungal hyphae were diagnosed by tissue sections and a Blankophor P fluorescent stain microscopy. The culture grew zygomycetes, S. vasiformis that failed to sporulate on Sabouraud dextrose agar, the organism was sporulated after 1 week on Czapek agar medium, and produced flask-shaped brown pigmented sporangium with lateral rhizoids and hemispherical columella filled with spores. The patient underwent a right functional endoscopic sinus surgery, where debridement of both right maxillary and ethmoid sinuses was done. Treatment with amphotericin B lipid complex was started and continued for 41 days. The patient was clinically doing better with decreased eye and facial swelling, and his erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were decreased to normal values. The patient continued with treatment on posaconazole after his discharge, and his condition resolved without further sequelae. Rhinosinusitis due to mucormycosis should be considered in any patient, even in young children, presenting with progressive rhinosinusitis infection, whether immunocompromised or not. Early diagnosis may lead to a successful treatment and good prognosis.