Journal of medical microbiology

Harnessing the genome: development of a hierarchical typing scheme for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

PMID 23002072


A major barrier to using genome sequencing in medical microbiology is the ability to interpret the data. New schemes that provide information about the importance of sequence variation in both clinical and public health settings are required. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen that is being observed with increasing frequency in community settings. Better tools are needed to improve our understanding of its transmissibility and micro-epidemiology in order to develop effective interventions. Using DNA microarray technology we identified a set of 20 binary targets whose presence or absence could be determined by PCR, producing a PCR binary typing scheme (PCR-BT). This was combined with multi-locus sequence type-based, sequence nucleotide polymorphism typing to form a hierarchical typing scheme. When applied to a set of epidemiologically unrelated isolates, a high degree of concordance was observed with PFGE (98.8 %). The scheme was able to detect the presence or absence of an outbreak strain in eight out of nine outbreak investigations, demonstrating epidemiological concordance. PCR-BT was better than PFGE at distinguishing between outbreak strains, particularly where epidemic MRSA-15 was involved. The method developed here is a rapid, digital typing scheme for S. aureus for use in both micro- and macro-epidemiological investigations that has the advantage of being suitable for use in routine diagnostic laboratories. The targets are defined and therefore the types can be defined by any platform capable of detecting the sequences used, including whole genome sequencing.

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Methicillin sodium salt, ≥95% (HPLC)