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Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics

Lamination and mixing in three fundamental flow sequences driven by electromagnetic body forces.


PMID 23005860

Abstract

This article pursues the idea that the degree of striations, called lamination, could be engineered to complement stretching and to design new sequential mixers. It explores lamination and mixing in three new mixing sequences experimentally driven by electromagnetic body forces. To generate these three mixing sequences, Lorentz body forces are dynamically controlled to vary the flow geometry produced by a pair of local jets. The first two sequences are inspired from the "tendril and whorl" and "blinking vortex" flows. The third novel sequence is called the "cat's eyes flip." These three mixing sequences exponentially stretch and laminate material lines representing the interface between two domains to be mixed. Moreover, the mixing coefficient (defined as 1-σ(2)/σ(0)(2) where σ(2)/σ(0)(2) is the rescaled variance) and its rate grow exponentially before saturation. This saturation of the mixing process is related to the departure of the mixing rate from an exponential growth when the striations' thicknesses reach the diffusive length scale of the measurements or species and dyes. Incidentally, in our experiments, for the same energy or forcing input, the cat's eyes flip sequence has higher lamination, stretching, and mixing rates than the tendril and whorl and the blinking vortex sequences. These features show that bakerlike in situ mixers can be conceived by dynamically controlling a pair of local jets and by integrating lamination during stirring stages with persistent geometries. Combined with novel insights provided by the quantification of the lamination, this paper should offer perspectives for the development of new sequential mixers, possibly on all scales.