European journal of pharmacology

Wy14643 improves vascular function in the aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rat mainly by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha.

PMID 23022336


Experiments were designed to determine if Wy14643 ([[4-chloro-6-[(2,3-dimethylphenyl)amino]-2-pyrimidinyl]thio]-acetic acid), a preferential agonist at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α, improves vascular function in hypertension, and if so, the mechanism(s) involved. Isometric tension was measured in isolated thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Wy14643-induced relaxations in SHR aortic rings were greater than those induced by fenofibrate or rosiglitazone (PPARα or PPARγ agonists, respectively) and were larger in rings with endothelium than those without. Both MK886 [(1-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-3-1,1-dimethylethyl)thio]-(α,α-dimethyl-5-1-methylethyl)-1H-indole-2-propanoic acid (PPARα antagonist) and GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide) (PPARγ antagonists) inhibited Wy14643-induced relaxations. The inhibitory effect of MK886 was more pronounced in rings with endothelium than those without. In SHR aortic rings with endothelium, L-NAME (N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), ODQ (1H-1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) and compound C [adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor] reduced Wy14643-induced relaxations. Western blotting studies indicated that Wy14643 and fenofibrate, but not rosiglitazone, increased the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and AMPK; these effects were abolished by compound C but not L-NAME. Endothelium-dependent contractions evoked by acetylcholine in quiescent SHR aorta in the presence of L-NAME were reduced by Wy14643 and fenofibrate but not by rosiglitazone. MK886, but not GW9662, prevented this effect. Wy14643 and fenofibrate inhibited acetylcholine-induced prostanoid release to the same extent. These findings suggest that PPARα agonists induce nitric oxide-mediated relaxation through activation of AMPK and reduce the release of endothelium-dependent contracting factors. Because also of the ability to activate smooth muscle PPARγ to induce relaxation, Wy14643 offers additional protection against vascular dysfunction of spontaneous hypertension.

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