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The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians

Lack of association between maternal periodontal status and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a multicentric epidemiologic study.


PMID 23039761

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between periodontal health and pregnancy outcomes in a large cohort of Italian postpartum women. 750 postpartum women were enrolled in a case-control study within 5 days from delivery at three Italian obstetric clinics. Cases were defined as those mothers who delivered an infant weighing under 2500 g (LBW) and/or had premature delivery and/or delivered small for gestational age newborns (SGA) and/or experienced preeclampsia/pregnancy induced hypertension (PE/PIH) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) during pregnancy. All women received comprehensive oral and dental examination. Associations between adverse pregnancy outcome and exposures of interest were evaluated by the use of multivariate logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no significant difference between cases and controls with respect to country of birth, age, place of residence, educational achievement, smoking, and periodontal status. By definition, infant birth weight [2,750 g (IQR = 2,300-3,200 g) and 3,275, (IQR = 3,010-3,538 g) p < 0.001, respectively] and gestational age at delivery [259 days (IQR = 245-273) and 273 days (IQR = 266-280), p < 0.01, respectively] were significantly lower in cases than in controls. In multivariate analyses, a borderline association was found between poor obstetric outcomes and current smokers (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.1-2.5). Finally, after adjusting for smoking status neither country of birth, nor age or place of residence or education or periodontitis were associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Our data failed to demonstrate the association between periodontitis and an adverse pregnancy outcome such as preterm birth, low birth weight, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and premature rupture of membranes.

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