Journal of bioscience and bioengineering

Electrochemical characterization of a unique, "neutral" laccase from Flammulina velutipes.

PMID 23063242


The flac1 gene consisted of 1488 bases encodes a novel laccase (Flac1) from Flammulina velutipes. The deduced amino acid sequence of Flac1 with 496 amino acids shows 58-64% homologies with other fungal laccases. The recombinant Flac1 (rFlac1) was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris, with sugars of approximately 4 kDa attached on the protein molecule, which has the calculated molecular mass of 53,532 Da. rFlac1 was shown to be a multi-copper oxidase from spectroscopies. The optimum pHs of rFlac1 for oxidations of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), p-phenylenediamine, and o-aminophenol, were 5.0, 5.0, and 6.0-6.5, respectively, showing higher pH values than those from many other fungal laccases. The slightly acidic or neutral optimum pH that is not strongly dependent on substrates is a unique property of rFlac1. Effective O(2) reduction was realized by the direct electron transfer of rFlac1 at a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode modified with fine carbon particles (Ketjen Black) in O(2)-saturated solution. The pHs showing the maximum ΔE°' [=E°'(enzyme) - E°'(substrate)] coincided well with the optimum pHs shown by rFlac1 under steady-state conditions. The present electrochemical results of rFlac1 indicate that ΔE°' is one of the primary factors to determine the activity of multi-copper oxidases.