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Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy

In vitro activities of antibiotics and antimicrobial cationic peptides alone and in combination against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.


PMID 23070152

Abstract

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are most often found as hospital- and community-acquired infections. The danger of MRSA infections results from not only the emergence of multidrug resistance but also the occurrence of bacteria that form strong biofilms. We investigated the in vitro activities of antibiotics (daptomycin, linezolid, teichoplanine, azithromycin, and ciprofloxacin) and antimicrobial cationic peptides {AMPs; indolicidin, CAMA [cecropin (1-7)-melittin A (2-9) amide], and nisin} alone or in combination against MRSA ATCC 43300 biofilms. The MICs and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) were determined by the broth microdilution technique. Antibiotic and AMP combinations were assessed using the checkerboard technique. For MRSA planktonic cells, MICs of antibiotics and AMPs ranged between 0.125 and 512 and 8 and 16 mg/liter, respectively, and the MBEC values were between 512 and 5,120 and 640 mg/liter, respectively. With a fractional inhibitory concentration of ≤0.5 as the borderline, synergistic interactions against MRSA biofilms were frequent with almost all antibiotic-antibiotic and antibiotic-AMP combinations. Against planktonic cells, they generally had an additive effect. No antagonism was observed. All of the antibiotics, AMPs, and their combinations were able to inhibit the attachment of bacteria at 1/10 MIC and biofilm formation at 1× MIC. Biofilm-associated MRSA was not affected by therapeutically achievable concentrations of antimicrobial agents. Use of a combination of antimicrobial agents can provide a synergistic effect, which rapidly enhances antibiofilm activity and may help prevent or delay the emergence of resistance. AMPs seem to be good candidates for further investigations in the treatment of MRSA biofilms, alone or in combination with antibiotics.

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