Bioavailability-based toxicity endpoints of bifenthrin for Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus.

PMID 23084260


Recent studies have determined that techniques, such as solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers and Tenax beads, can predict bioaccumulation and potentially could predict toxicity for several compounds and species. Toxicity of bifenthrin was determined using two standard sediment toxicity tests with the benthic species Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus in three reference sediments with different characteristics. The objectives of the current study were to establish bioavailability-based median lethal concentrations (LC50) and median effect concentrations (EC50) of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, compare their ability to assess toxicity to the use of whole sediment concentrations, as well as to make comparisons of the concentrations derived using each method in order to make assessments of accuracy and extrapolation potential. Four metrics were compared including SPME fiber concentration, pore water concentration derived using SPMEs, 6 h Tenax extractable concentration, and 24 h Tenax extractable concentration. The variation among the LC50s and EC50s in each sediment derived using bioavailability-based methods was comparable to variation among organic carbon normalized sediment concentrations, but improved over whole sediment concentrations. There was a significant linear relationship between SPME or Tenax and organic carbon normalized sediment concentrations. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between the SPME and Tenax concentrations across sediments. The significant linear relationship between SPME and Tenax concentrations further demonstrates that these bioavailability-based endpoints are interrelated. This study derived bioavailability-based benchmarks that may prove to be more accurate than sediment-based ones in predicting toxicity across sediment types.