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Cellular immunology

Impairment of lysosomal functions by azithromycin and chloroquine contributes to anti-inflammatory phenotype.


PMID 23099154

Abstract

Azithromycin and chloroquine have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities in a number of cellular systems, but the mechanisms of these activities have still not been clarified unequivocally. Since both drugs are cationic, accumulate in acidic cellular compartments and bind to phospholipids with a consequent increase in lysosomal pH and induce phospholipidosis, we examined the relevance of these common properties to their anti-inflammatory activities. We compared also these effects with effects of concanamycin A, compound which inhibits acidification of lysosomes. All three compounds increased lysosomal pH, accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and ubiquitinated proteins and impaired recycling of TLR4 receptor with consequences in downstream signaling in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 cells. Azithromycin and chloroquine additionally inhibited arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Therefore, impairment of lysosomal functions by azithromycin and chloroquine deregulate TLR4 recycling and signaling and phospholipases activation and lead to anti-inflammatory phenotype in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 cells.

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