EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo toxic effects of newly synthesized benzimidazole-based organophosphorus compounds.


PMID 23116621

Abstract

This paper reports the toxic properties of eight newly synthesized benzimidazole-based organophosphorus (OP) compounds in Xenopus laevis in both in vivo and in vitro conditions. For both experiments, a commercial solution of azinphos methyl (AzM, Gusathion M WP25) was used as a reference compound. The 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC₅₀) of all tested compounds were determined for 46th stage tadpoles in the range of 9.54-140.0 μM. For evaluation of the lethality of the compounds, the activity of the enzyme biomarkers acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined in vivo in X. laevis tadpoles exposed to three concentrations (LC₅₀, LC₅₀/2, and LC₅₀/4) of tested compounds. All exposure concentrations of AzM and seven of eight tested compounds caused CaE inhibition in in vivo conditions. Furthermore, the AChE inhibition capacity of tested compounds in commercial electric eel AChE and in X. laevis homogenates and also CaE inhibition capacity in only X. laevis homogenates were assayed for a 30-min in vitro exposure period. Eight OP compounds did not inhibit AChE activity more than 23 percent, but AzM exposure inhibited AChE activity by 26 percent for X. laevis homogenates and 97 percent for electric fish AChE in in vitro conditions. Also, CaE inhibition levels in X. laevis tadpole homogenates were 46 percent for AzM and between 8 percent and 33 percent for other compounds in in vitro conditions.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

45333
Azinphos-methyl, PESTANAL®, analytical standard
C10H12N3O3PS2
E0287 Carboxylesterase 1 isoform b human, recombinant, expressed in baculovirus infected BTI insect cells
E0162 Carboxylesterase 1 isoform c human, recombinant, expressed in baculovirus infected BTI insect cells
C4749 Carboxylesterase 2 human, recombinant, expressed in mouse NSO cells, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE)
46051 Esterase from Bacillus stearothermophilus, ≥0.2 U/mg
79302 Esterase from Bacillus stearothermophilus, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥8.0 U/mg
96667 Esterase from Bacillus subtilis, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥10 U/mg
51963 Esterase from Bacillus subtilis, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥0.8 U/mg
46054 Esterase from Bacillus thermoglucosidasius, lyophilized, powder, beige, ~0.1 U/mg
46069 Esterase from horse liver, lyophilized, powder, brown, 0.5-1.0 U/mg
46058 Esterase from porcine liver, lyophilized, powder, slightly beige, ≥50 U/mg
E2884 Esterase from porcine liver, ammonium sulfate suspension, ≥150 units/mg protein (biuret)
E3019 Esterase from porcine liver, lyophilized powder, ≥15 units/mg solid
E0887 Esterase from rabbit liver, lyophilized powder, ≥75 units/mg protein
79208 Esterase from Rhizopus oryzae, powder, light beige, ≥20 U/g
46071 Esterase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lyophilized, powder, beige, ~2 U/g
43388 Esterase Isoenzyme 1 porcine liver, recombinant, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥30.0 U/g
93855 Esterase Isoenzyme 2 porcine liver, recombinant, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥80 U/g
93712 Esterase Isoenzyme 3 porcine liver, recombinant, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥0.8 U/mg
53564 Esterase Isoenzyme 5 porcine liver, recombinant, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥0.5 U/mg
80712 Esterase Methylobacterium populi, recombinant, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥0.5 U/mg
92385 Esterase Nocardia farcinica, recombinant, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥0.4 U/mg
04492 Esterase Paenibacillus barcinonensis, recombinant, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥12 U/mg
04533 Esterase Pelobacter propionicus, recombinant, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥0.5 U/mg
75742 Esterase Pseudomonas fluorescens, recombinant from E. coli, ≥4 U/mg
80711 Esterase Pseudomonas fluorescens, recombinant from E. coli, ≥0.3 U/mg
62350 Lipozyme®, immobilized from Mucor miehei, granular, brown, >30 U/g