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Pharmaceutical biology

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Pittocaulon species from México.


PMID 23127192

Abstract

context: Stems and leaves of Pittocaulon spp. (Asteraceae) are used in Mexican traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory substance and for the treatment of skin injuries. This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DC) extracts of five Pittocaulon species. DC and MeOH extracts from flowers, roots, and stems of Pittocaulon praecox (Cav.) H. Rob. & Brettell, P. bombycophole (Bullock) H. Rob. & Brettell, P. filare (Mc Vaugh) H. Rob. & Brettell, P. velatum (Greenm.) Rob. & Brettell and P. hintonii H. Rob. & Brettell. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the flower extracts obtained with MeOH were the most active with IC(50) values ranging from 51.83 ± 4.08 to 154.19 ± 8.39 ppm. In the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) model, the best activity was shown by DC extracts of roots with IC(50) values ranging from 55.54 ± 1.28 to 160.82 ± 5.37 ppm. The MeOH extract of flowers of P. bombycophole had the highest IC(50) value in both DPPH (51.83 ± 4.08 ppm) and TBARS (39.78 ± 1.97 ppm). The samples with the best values in the antioxidant activity assays were evaluated in the anti-inflammatory tests. The DC root extract of P. velatum at a dose of 1 mg/ear produced the greatest reduction (84.96%) of the 2-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema. This extract also reduced the activity of the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) (73.65%) at the same dose. In contrast, DC root extract of this species did not show significant inhibition of the increase in paw edema induced by carrageenan at the doses tested (100 mg/kg). These results support the traditional use of these plants as anti-inflammatory. DC extracts of P. velatum and MeOH extracts of P. bombycophole may be a potential resource of natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds, respectively. Additional studies must be done to identify the compounds responsible of the activity on these plants and to establish the mechanism of action.