Journal of virology

The replication defect of ICP0-null mutant herpes simplex virus 1 can be largely complemented by the combined activities of human cytomegalovirus proteins IE1 and pp71.

PMID 23135716


Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early protein ICP0 is required for efficient lytic infection and productive reactivation from latency and induces derepression of quiescent viral genomes. Despite being unrelated at the sequence level, ICP0 and human cytomegalovirus proteins IE1 and pp71 share some functional similarities in their abilities to counteract antiviral restriction mediated by components of cellular nuclear structures known as ND10. To investigate the extent to which IE1 and pp71 might substitute for ICP0, cell lines were developed that express either IE1 or pp71, or both together, in an inducible manner. We found that pp71 dissociated the hDaxx-ATRX complex and inhibited accumulation of these proteins at sites juxtaposed to HSV-1 genomes but had no effect on the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) or Sp100. IE1 caused loss of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-conjugated forms of PML and Sp100 and inhibited the recruitment of these proteins to HSV-1 genome foci but had little effect on hDaxx or ATRX in these assays. Both IE1 and pp71 stimulated ICP0-null mutant plaque formation, but neither to the extent achieved by ICP0. The combination of IE1 and pp71, however, inhibited recruitment of all ND10 proteins to viral genome foci, stimulated ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 plaque formation to near wild-type levels, and efficiently induced derepression of quiescent HSV-1 genomes. These results suggest that ND10-related intrinsic resistance results from the additive effects of several ND10 components and that the effects of IE1 and pp71 on subsets of these components combine to mirror the overall activities of ICP0.