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In vivo (Athens, Greece)

Accumulation and pharmacokinetics of estrogenic chemicals in the pre- and post-hatch embryos of the frog Rana rugosa.


PMID 23160672

Abstract

Amphibian eggs spawned in water are exposed immediately to various chemicals present in their water. The present study aimed to investigate the accumulation and pharmacokinetics of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)), bisphenol A (BPA), and nonylphenol (NP), as well as 17β-estradiol (E(2)), in the pre-hatch and post-hatch embryos of the frog Rana rugosa. Fertilized eggs were exposed to chemicals at a final concentration of 500 nM in breeding water for two days, then the embryos with jelly coats were reared in fresh-breeding water without supplementation of the xenoestrogens for six more days. All exogenous chemicals were concentrated in the embryo body at two days after fertilization, whereas their concentrations in the jelly coat were the same as those in the breeding water. The bioconcentration factors for E(2), EE(2), BPA, and NP were 217.9, 170.2, 382.3, and 289.1, respectively, suggesting that the estrogenic chemicals were concentrated in the embryo body through the jelly coat.