PloS one

Selective histonedeacetylase inhibitor M344 intervenes in HIV-1 latency through increasing histone acetylation and activation of NF-kappaB.

PMID 23166597


Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors present an exciting new approach to activate HIV production from latently infected cells to potentially enhance elimination of these cells and achieve a cure. M344, a novel HDAC inhibitor, shows robust activity in a variety of cancer cells and relatively low toxicity compared to trichostatin A (TSA). However, little is known about the effects and action mechanism of M344 in inducing HIV expression in latently infected cells. Using the Jurkat T cell model of HIV latency, we demonstrate that M344 effectively reactivates HIV-1 gene expression in latently infected cells. Moreover, M344-mediated activation of the latent HIV LTR can be strongly inhibited by a NF-κB inhibitor aspirin. We further show that M344 acts by increasing the acetylation of histone H3 and histone H4 at the nucleosome 1 (nuc-1) site of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and by inducing NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and direct RelA DNA binding at the nuc-1 region of the HIV-1 LTR. We also found that M344 synergized with prostratin to activate the HIV-1 LTR promoter in latently infected cells. These results suggest the potential of M344 in anti-latency therapies and an important role for histone modifications and NF-κB transcription factors in regulating HIV-1 LTR gene expression.

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Prostratin, ≥98% (HPLC)