Food chemistry

Protective effects of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidin fractions from defatted grape seeds on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells.

PMID 23200001


Oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins have been reported to possess different antioxidant capacities. However, the intracellular antioxidant mechanisms of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins are still poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the cytoprotective effects of the oligomeric procyanidin fraction (OPF) and the polymeric procyanidin fraction (PPF) from grape seeds against the oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in HepG2 cells. The levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH), and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured as biomarkers of cellular oxidative status. HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of procyanidin samples (0-20 μg/ml) for 6h prior to treatment with TBHP for 3h. The incubation of HepG2 cells with TBHP led to an approximately 60% decrease in cell viability. However, pretreatment of the cells with the samples, at 5-20 μg/ml, rescued cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular generation of ROS, formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), and depletion of GSH were reduced by OPF and PPF. Moreover, TBHP treatment increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, a 6h pretreatment with each of the samples at 20 μg/ml significantly decreased the activities of these enzymes. These results clearly showed that treatment with OPF and PPF protected against oxidative damage by modulating ROS production, GSH levels, MDA generation, and antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 cells.