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Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association

Determination of aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in wheat and oat based bran supplements sold in the Spanish market.


PMID 23201447

Abstract

The aflatoxins (AFs), deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEA) are mycotoxins produced by fungal species which can contaminate, alone or simultaneously, cereal-based raw materials. Usually, the higher mycotoxins concentrations in cereals are found in the external layers of the grain (bran). Nowadays bran is increasingly consumed for its high fibre concentration. The objectives of this study were determining the concentration of these mycotoxins in bran samples intended for direct human consumption and to study the influence of some characteristics of the samples that may affect the mycotoxins content, there are not studies about fibre for direct human consumption. 67 bran samples from shops and supermarkets from two different Spanish cities were analyzed, being 37 samples of wheat bran and the remaining of oat bran. The results showed a major presence of DON in the analyzed samples, with levels above the EU legislation in some samples. Presence of DON was more frequent in wheat samples, compared to oats ones (p<0.05). Extruded or toasted samples, subjected to a heat treatment during processing, presented a significantly lower concentration of OTA, and differences between the organically and conventionally produced samples were also detected in OTA, which showed higher levels in the organic samples. Co-occurrence was frequently found between the Fusarium mycotoxins (ZEA and DON). Due to the high levels of DON in the analyzed samples, a calculation of DON intake has been made and it has been demonstrated that bran can account for an important percentage of DON exposure in the total diet.