Toxicology and industrial health

The use of endemic Iranian plant, Echium amoenum, against the ethyl methanesulfonate and the recovery of mutagenic effects.

PMID 23222692


In this study, potential genotoxic effects of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) that caused mutagenicity in a variety of organisms were tried to resolve by the methanol and chloroform extract of Echium amoenum (EAmet and EAchl) Fisch. & C.A. Mey. from the family of Boraginaceae, which is an endemic plant, and is used as an alternative treatment among public in Iran. Somatic mutation and recombination test with Drosophila wing was used to determine the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects in our investigations. For this purpose, 3-day-old transheterozygous larvae of mwh/flr(3) genotype of Drosophila melanogaster were used in all our experiments. The larvae were fed chronically on the Drosophila instant medium (DIM) including 1 ppm EMS. However, in another application group, different concentrations (1, 2 and 4 ppm) of EAmet and EAchl were added to DIM including 1 ppm EMS (EMS + EAmet and EMS + EAchl). Then, for the matured individuals, wing preparates were prepared within the mediums that include control group that has only DIM, negative control group that contains dimethyl sulfoxide and application groups in different concentrations that contain EMS, EMS + EAmet and EMS + EAchl. Clone induction frequency for the normal wing phenotype of EMS application group was observed to be 2.00. In the EMS + EAmet application group, the value of 1 ppm EAmet is 1.49, value of 2 ppm EAmet is 1.08 and value of 4 ppm EAmet is 0.72; in the EMS + EAchl application group, the value of 1 ppm is EAchl 1.33, value of 2 ppm EAchl is 0.67 and value of 4 ppm EAchl is 0.56 were determined. This decrease observed between EMS and all application groups in terms of total induction frequency is statistically significant (p < 0.05). These results concluded that chloroform extracts were more effective than the methanol extracts of E. amoenum.