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Neuro-oncology

On-target JAK2/STAT3 inhibition slows disease progression in orthotopic xenografts of human glioblastoma brain tumor stem cells.


PMID 23262510

Abstract

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by an aggressive clinical course, therapeutic resistance, and striking molecular heterogeneity. GBM-derived brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) closely model this molecular heterogeneity and likely have a key role in tumor recurrence and therapeutic resistance. Emerging evidence indicates that Janus kinase (JAK)2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 is an important mediator of tumor cell survival, growth, and invasion in a large group of GBM. Here, we used a large set of molecularly heterogeneous BTSCs to evaluate the translational potential of JAK2/STAT3 therapeutics. BTSCs were cultured from GBM patients and MGMT promoter methylation, and the mutation statuses of EGFR, PTEN, and TP53 were determined. Endogenous JAK2/STAT3 activity was assessed in human GBM tissue, BTSCs, and orthotopic xenografts by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. STAT3 short hairpin (sh)RNA, cucurbitacin-I, and WP1066 were used to inhibit JAK2/STAT3 activity in vitro and in vivo. The JAK2/STAT3 pathway was demonstrated to be highly activated in human GBM, molecularly heterogeneous BTSCs derived from these tumors, and BTSC xenografts. STAT3 shRNA knockdown or cucurbitacin-I and WP1066 administration resulted in on-target JAK2/STAT3 inhibition and dramatically reduced BTSC survival regardless of endogenous MGMT promoter methylation or EGFR, PTEN, and TP53 mutational status. BTSC orthotopic xenografts maintained the high levels of activated JAK2/STAT3 seen in their parent human tumors. Intraperitoneal WP1066 reduced intratumoral JAK2/STAT3 activity and prolonged animal survival. Our study demonstrates the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of on-target JAK2/STAT3 inhibition in heterogeneous BTSC lines that closely emulate the genomic and tumorigenic characteristics of human GBM.

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C4493
Cucurbitacin I hydrate, ≥95% (HPLC), solid
C30H42O7 · xH2O