Ultrasonics sonochemistry

Reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by Pd/Fe nanoparticles prepared in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation.

PMID 23266438


Palladium/Iron (Pd/Fe) nanoparticles were prepared by using ultrasound strengthened liquid phase reductive method to enhance dispersion and avoid agglomeration. The dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by Pd/Fe nanoparticles was investigated to understand its feasibility for an in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. Results showed that 2,4-DCP was first adsorbed by Pd/Fe nanoparticles, then quickly reduced to o-chlorophenol (o-CP), p-chlorophenol (p-CP), and finally to phenol (P). The induction of ultrasound during the preparation of Pd/Fe nanoparticles further enhanced the removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP, as a result, the phenol production rates increased from 65% (in the absence of ultrasonic irradiation) to 91% (in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation) within 2h. Our data suggested that the dechlorination rate was dependent on various factors including Pd loading percentage over Fe(0), Pd/Fe nanoparticles availability, temperature, mechanical stirring speed, and initial pH values. Up to 99.2% of 2,4-DCP was removed after 300min reaction with these conditions: Pd loading percentage over Fe(0) 0.3wt.%, initial 2,4-DCP concentration 20mgL(-1), Pd/Fe dosage 3gL(-1), initial pH value 3.0, and reaction temperature 25°C. The degradation of 2,4-DCP followed pseudo-first-order kinetics reaction and the apparent pseudo-first-order kinetics constant was 0.0468min(-1).