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Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA

β-Ionone attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE2 and TNF-α in BV2 microglial cells via suppression of the NF-κB and MAPK pathway.


PMID 23268108

Abstract

β-Ionone, a precursor of carotenoids, possesses a variety of biological properties such as anti-cancerous, anti-mutagenic and anti-microbial activity. Nevertheless, anti-inflammatory effects of β-ionone remain unknown. In this study, we investigated whether ION attenuates the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in BV2 microglia cells. Our data showed that β-ionone significantly inhibits secretion of NO, PGE2 and TNF-α. β-Ionone also inhibits the expression of inducible NO synthesis (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and TNF-α protein and their mRNA in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. In addition, β-ionone significantly reduced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) through suppression of nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. We showed that NF-κB inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) effectively attenuates the expression of LPS-stimulated iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. We also found that LPS-induced NF-κB activation is significantly regulated through inhibition of Akt phosphorylation in the presence of β-ionone. Finally, we showed that β-ionone substantially inhibits the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1/2, p38 and JNK, which are closely related to regulation of pro-inflammatory mediator secretion. Taken together, these data imply that β-ionone regulates LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent inflammatory pathways through suppression of Akt and MAPK activation.

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