Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)

Metabolism of the polycyclic musk galaxolide and its interference with endogenous and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

PMID 23274450


This study investigates the metabolism and mode of action of galaxolide (HHCB) in the European sea bass -Dicentrarchus labrax- following a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg HHCB/kg body weight. In addition, a group of fish was injected with 50 mg/kg of ketoconazole (KCZ), a fungicide that is known to interfere with different Cyp isoenzymes. HHCB was actively metabolised by sea bass and acted as a weak inhibitor of the synthesis of oxyandrogens in gonads of male fish. Both, HHCB and a hydroxylated metabolite were detected in bile. The fungicide ketoconazole was a strong inhibitor of Cyp11β and Cyp3a-catalyzed activities. The work contributes to the better understanding of the impact of synthetic musks on fish and proposes the determination of HHCB and/or its hydroxylated metabolite in bile as a tool to assess environmental exposure in wild fish.