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Free radical biology & medicine

Overexpression of thioredoxin-binding protein 2 increases oxidation sensitivity and apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells.


PMID 23291592

Abstract

Thioredoxin (Trx) is an important redox regulator with cytosolic Trx1 and mitochondrial Trx2 isozymes. Trx has multiple physiological functions in cells and its bioavailability is negatively controlled through active-site binding to a specific thioredoxin-binding protein (TBP-2). This paper describes the delicate balance between TBP-2 and Trx and the effect of overexpression of TBP-2 in human lens epithelial cells. Cells overexpressing TBP-2 (TBP-2 OE) showed a sevenfold increase in TBP-2 and a nearly 40% suppression of Trx activity but no change in Trx expression. The TBP-2 OE cells grew slower and their population decreased to 30% by day 7. Cell cycle analysis showed that TBP-2 OE cells arrested at the G2/M stage and that they displayed low expression of the cell cycle elements P-cdc2(Y15), cdc2, cdc25A, and cdc25C. Furthermore, TBP-2 OE cells were more sensitive to oxidation. Under H2O2 (200μM, 24h) treatment, these cells lost 80% viability and became highly apoptotic. Brief oxidative stress (200μM, 30min) to TBP-2 OE cells disrupted the Trx antiapoptotic function by dissociating the cytosolic and mitochondrial Trx-ASK binding complexes. The same H2O2-treated cells also showed activated ASK (P-ASK), increased Bax, lowered Bcl-2, cytochrome c release, and elevated caspase 3/7 activity. We conclude from these studies that high cellular levels of TBP-2 can potentially suppress Trx bioavailability and increase oxidation sensitivity. Overexpression of TBP-2 also causes slow growth by mitotic arrest and apoptosis by activating the ASK death pathway.