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PloS one

Concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of Baicalin on the plasma protein binding and metabolism of chlorzoxazone, a CYP2E1 probe substrate, in rats in vitro and in vivo.


PMID 23301016

Abstract

Some of the components found in herbs may be inhibitors or inducers of cytochrome P450 enzymes, which may therefore result in undesired herb-drug interactions. As a component extracted from Radix Scutellariae, the direct effect of baicalin on cytochrome P450 has not been investigated sufficiently. In this study, we investigated concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding and metabolism of chlorzoxazone (CZN), a model CYP2E1 probe substrate, in rats in vitro and in vivo. Animal experiment was a randomized, three-period crossover design. Significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of CZN such as C(max), t(1/2) and V(d) were observed after treatment with baicalin in vivo (P<0.05). C(max) decreased by 25% and 33%, whereas t(1/2) increased by 34% and 53%, V(d) increased by 37% and 50% in 225 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg baicalin-treated rats, respectively. The AUC and CL of CZN were not affected (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that the changes in CZN concentrations and baicalin concentrations were in good correlation (r>0.99). In vitro experiments, baicalin decreased the formation of 6-OH-chlorzoxazone in a concentration-dependent manner and exhibited a competitive inhibition in rat liver microsomes, with a Ki value of 145.8 µM. The values of C(max)/Ki were 20 and 39 after treatment with baicalin (225 and 450 mg/kg), respectively. Protein binding experiments in vivo showed that the plasma free-fraction (fu) of CZN increased 2.6-fold immediately after baicalin treatment (450 mg/kg) and in vitro showed that baicalin (125-2500 mg/L) increased the unbound CZN from 1.63% to 3.58%. The results indicate that pharmacokinetic changes in CZN are induced by inhibitory effect of baicalin on the plasma protein binding of CZN and CYP2E1 activity.