Effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin on preneoplastic liver cell lesions induced by thioacetamide promotion in a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using rats.

PMID 23318833


To investigate the protective effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) on the hepatocarcinogenic process, we used a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model in N-diethylnitrosamine-initiated and thioacetamide (TAA)-promoted rats. We examined the modifying effect of co-administration with EMIQ on the liver tissue environment including hepatic macrophages and lymphocytes and on the induction mechanism of preneoplastic cell apoptosis during early stages of hepatocellular tumor promotion. TAA increased the number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)(+) liver cell foci and the numbers of proliferating and apoptotic cells in randomly selected areas in liver sections. Co-administration with EMIQ suppressed these effects. TAA also increased the numbers of ED2(+), cyclooxygenase-2(+), and heme oxygenase-1(+) liver cells, as well as the number of CD3(+) lymphocytes. These effects were also suppressed by EMIQ. EMIQ increased liver levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and TUNEL(+) apoptotic cells, death receptor 5 (DR5)(+) cells and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal(+) cells within GST-P(+) foci. Outside the GST-P(+) foci, EMIQ decreased the numbers of apoptotic cells and DR5(+) cells. These results suggest that TAA-induced tumor promotion involves activation of hepatic macrophages producing proinflammatory factors. EMIQ may suppress the TAA-induced tumor-promoting activity by an anti-inflammatory mechanism mediated by suppressing the activation of these macrophages. Furthermore, EMIQ may suppress tumor-promoting activity differentially between the inside and outside of GST-P(+) foci. Within GST-P(+) foci, EMIQ facilitates the apoptosis of preneoplastic cells through the upregulation of DR5. Outside the GST-P(+) foci, EMIQ suppresses apoptosis and the subsequent regeneration of non-transformed liver cells.