Journal of ethnopharmacology

Efficacy of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn in chemically induced urolithiasis in rats.

PMID 23333749


Adiantum capillus veneris Linn has been recommended in ancient literature of Unani system of medicine as an important ingredient of many formulations for the treatment of urolithiasis. Its decoction has long been used for the same purpose by several Unani physicians. To investigate the antiurolithiasic effect of the hydro alcoholic extract of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn in male Sprague Dawley rats. The effects of oral administration of hydro alcoholic extract of test drug were studied on calcium oxalate urolithiasis. A total of 48 rats were used for the study. The animals were divided into six groups of eight animals each. Plain control rats were treated with distilled water only, throughout the study period, whereas in other groups nephrolithiasis was induced by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol and 1% ammonium chloride for 7 days. Thereafter, urine was examined for the presence of crystals. Negative control group A rats were sacrificed after 7 days, whereas negative control group B was left untreated up to the end of study. Test groups were treated with 127.6 mg/kg and 255.2 mg/kg of test drug and standard control with Cystone (750 mg/kg) for 21 days. At the end of experiment, number of crystals in urine and levels of calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine in serum were observed. Histopathological study of the kidney was done by light microscopy. Urine microscopy showed significant reduction (p<0.001 and p<0.01) in the number of crystals in test groups A and B respectively. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorous, and blood urea were found to be decreased significantly in all the groups. In both the test groups, serum creatinine level was found to be similar as in plain control. The animals treated with test drug showed much improvement in body weight. Histopathology of kidney showed almost normal kidney architecture in treated groups. The above findings indicate the antiurolithic activity of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn, and thus, validate the claims of Unani physicians for its medicinal use in urolithiasis.