The Journal of experimental medicine

Neutrophils control the magnitude and spread of the immune response in a thromboxane A2-mediated process.

PMID 23337807


Neutrophils are obligate cells entering lymph nodes shortly after immunization with protein antigens in adjuvants, starting during the first hour and continuing for several days in two distinct waves. Previously, we demonstrated the strong suppressive effects of neutrophils on CD4 T cell and B cell responses, using either neutrophil-depleting antibodies or genetically neutropenic mice. In this study, we find that neutrophils are the major cells controlling the spread of T cell responses to distal lymph nodes. Although in the presence of neutrophils, ∼75% of the response was restricted to the draining node, in their absence, most of the response was found in distal nodes. Prostanoids were responsible for the rapid entry of neutrophils into the draining nodes, as well as for the two distinct neutrophil effects: the modulation of the magnitude of the cellular response, and in its spread outside the draining nodes. Neutrophil-produced thromboxane A(2) was the key eicosanoid controlling both effects. Adoptive transfer of neutrophils into mice genetically deficient in neutrophils indicated their role in both. These functions of neutrophils are important in infections and vaccinations with adjuvants where neutrophils are abundant in the initial stages.

Related Materials

Product #



Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate 4-O-methyl ether