Genome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals after intervention with vegetables and plant oil.

PMID 23340810


Recent studies suggest increased cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) compared with healthy individuals. The present study aims to assess whether T2DM is associated with increased genome instability and whether a healthy diet with natural foods can improve genome stability in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Seventy-six diabetic and 21 non-diabetic individuals were randomly assigned to either an 'intervention' or an 'information only' group. All participants received information about the beneficial effects of a healthy diet, while subjects of the intervention group received additionally 300g of vegetables and 25ml of plant oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids per day for 8 weeks. Chromosomal damage was assessed using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) cytome assay. Levels of chromosomal damage did not differ between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. However, diabetic individuals with MN frequency above the high 50th percentile had significantly higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and were at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk score. Non-diabetic individuals with MN frequency above the 50th percentile had significantly lower vitamin B12 levels. The intervention with vegetables and plant oil led to significant increases in folate, γ-tocopherol, α- and β-carotene while vitamin B12 was significantly reduced. Levels of chromosomal damage were not altered, only apoptosis was slightly increased. The results suggest interactions between glycaemic control, CVD risk and genome stability in individuals with T2DM. However, a healthy diet does not improve genome damage in PBLs.