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Ecotoxicology and environmental safety

Cost of reproduction. Changes in metabolism and endosulfan lethality caused by reproductive behavior in Hyalella curvispina (Crustacea: Amphipoda).


PMID 23352127

Abstract

Biocides are periodically applied in agricultural activities, reaching aquatic systems and acting upon the biota. Amphipods are widely used in toxicity tests because of their sensitivity to a wide range of pollutants. In this work, we report the differential lethality of a widely used pesticide, endosulfan, on the amphipod Hyalella curvispina at two life stages and in three different adult groups, males and females separated by sex and both sexes grouped together. In addition, oxygen consumption of adult groups was determined as a way to estimate the role of behavioral activities and exposure to endosulfan in metabolism shifts. There were no differences between the LC(50) of juveniles and the adults when they were separated by sex (p>0.05). Nevertheless, the LC(50) of adults without sexual differentiation was significantly lower than the LC(50) of juveniles and adults separated by sex (p<0.05). The oxygen consumption rate was higher when adults were grouped without sexual differentiation in the control group. The exposure to low concentrations of endosulfan causes an increase in oxygen consumption in all the treatments. The sexual behavior increased the metabolism and the sensitivity to endosulfan. In future evaluations, adults grouped without sexual differentiation, which were the most sensitive group, should be included in order to mimic the environmental conditions. Using only juveniles or adults separated by sex in toxicity tests may inaccurately estimate the lethality of biocides, especially in species with constant reproductive activities.

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