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Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes

Effectiveness evaluation of glyphosate oxidation employing the H(2)O(2)/UVC process: toxicity assays with Vibrio fischeri and Rhinella arenarum tadpoles.


PMID 23356336

Abstract

The H(2)O(2)/UVC process was applied to the photodegradation of a commercial formulation of glyphosate in water. Two organisms (Vibrio fischeri bacteria and Rhinella arenarum tadpoles) were used to investigate the toxicity of glyphosate in samples M(1,) M(2), and M(3) following different photodegradation reaction times (120, 240 and 360 min, respectively) that had differing amounts of residual H(2)O(2). Subsamples of M(1), M(2), and M(3) were then used to create samples M(1,E), M(2,E) and M(3,E) in which the H(2)O(2) had been removed. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured in tadpoles to determine possible sub-lethal effects. In V. fischeri, M(1,E), which was collected early in the photodegradation process, caused 52% inhibition, while M(3,E), which was collected at the end of the photodegradation process, caused only 17% inhibition. Survival of tadpoles was 100% in samples M(2), M(3), and in M(1,E), M(2,E) and M(3,E). The lowest percentages of enzymatic inhibition were observed in samples without removal of H(2)O(2): 13.96% (AChE) and 16% (BChE) for M(2), and 24.12% (AChE) and 13.83% (BChE) for M(3). These results show the efficiency of the H(2)O(2)/UVC process in reducing the toxicity of water or wastewater polluted by commercial formulations of glyphosate. According to the ecotoxicity assays, the conditions corresponding to M(2) (11 ± 1 mg a.e. L(-1) glyphosate and 11 ± 1 mg L(-1) H(2)O(2)) could be used as a final point for glyphosate treatment with the H(2)O(2)/UV process.