NEAT1 long noncoding RNA and paraspeckle bodies modulate HIV-1 posttranscriptional expression.

PMID 23362321


Most of the human genome is transcribed into protein-noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). Over the past decade, rapidly emerging evidence has increasingly supported the view that lncRNAs serve key regulatory and functional roles in mammal cells. HIV-1 replication relies on various cell functions. To date, while the involvement of host protein factors and microRNAs (miRNAs) in the HIV-1 life cycle has been extensively studied, the relationship between lncRNAs and HIV-1 remains uncharacterized. Here, we have profiled 83 disease-related lncRNAs in HIV-1-infected T cells. We found NEAT1 to be one of several lncRNAs whose expression is changed by HIV-1 infection, and we have characterized its role in HIV-1 replication. We In the abstract, added definition of INS OK, or should "cis-acting" be added?report here that the knockdown of NEAT1 enhances virus production through increased nucleus-to-cytoplasm export of Rev-dependent instability element (INS)-containing HIV-1 mRNAs. IMPORTANCE Long protein-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play roles in regulating gene expression and modulating protein activities. There is emerging evidence that lncRNAs are involved in the replication of viruses. To our knowledge, this report is the first to characterize a role contributed by an lncRNA, NEAT1, to HIV-1 replication. NEAT1 is essential for the integrity of the nuclear paraspeckle substructure. Based on our findings from NEAT1 knockdown, we have identified the nuclear paraspeckle body as another important subcellular organelle for HIV-1 replication.