Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine

Isolation, fractionation and evaluation of the antiplasmodial properties of Phyllanthus niruri resident in its chloroform fraction.

PMID 23375028


To investigate the antiplasmodial activity of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) methanol extract (ME) and its fractions in mice. P. niruri methanol extract and its chloroform, ethanol and aqueous portions were tested against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei in early, established and repository models of infection using Knight and Peter's 4-day suppressive model, Ryley and Peters curative model and Peters prophylactic model respectively. Chemosuppression of parasitaemia (37.65%-50.53 %) was elicited by 100-400 mg/kg (b.w.) of ME. At doses of 100 mg/kg b.w., the chloroform fraction (F1) significantly (P<0.01) suppressed parasitaemia by 85.29%, while ethanol and aqueous fractions (F2 and F3, respectively) elicited 67.06% and 51.18% chemosuppression. The most active fraction, F1 was selected for further antiplasmodial screening. In established infection, ME reduced parasitaemia (15.81%-62.96%) while F1 significantly (P<0.01) reduced parasitaemia (44.36%-90.48%), with effects comparable to that of chloroquine (96.48%). The prophylactic antiplasmodial activity of ME (92.50% suppression) was also significant (P<0.01) and was more effective than pyrimethamine (85.00%). Additionally, cell membrane integrity of non-parasitized erythrocytes incubated with 125-500 mg/mL F1 was maintained. These findings indicate the antiplasmodial efficacy of P. niruri methanol extract, and the localization of this effect in its chloroform fraction.