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VASA. Zeitschrift fur Gefasskrankheiten

Foam sclerotherapy with enoxaparin prophylaxis in high-risk patients with postthrombotic syndrome.


PMID 23385226

Abstract

According to the current guidelines for sclerotherapy hypercoagulability and thrombophilia with or without deep venous thrombosis are seen as relative contraindication for this treatment. But often such patients have an indication for a sclerotherapy. Recommendations for additional anticoagulation for sclerotherapy are missing. In this retrospective analysis (2009 - 2010), 54 patients with deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonal embolism in their medical history that had had foam-sclerotherapy of truncal or tributary veins with polidocanol 0.5 - 3 % without prior anticoagulation therapy were included. In addition to compression treatment (23 - 32 mmHg) for 3 weeks patients were treated with enoxaparin 40 mg once a day for 3 days after sclerotherapy. Clinical and duplex controls were conducted before every treatment and 2 - 3 weeks after the last injection. Sclerotherapy was done on one (30/54) or on both (24/54) legs. In 2/54 legs a truncal vein and in all patients tributaries were treated. The volume per treatment session averaged 3.3 ml foam (2 - 6 ml). The patients had undergone an average of 4.9 treatments (1 - 11); altogether 262 sessions. There were no cases of deep venous thrombosis or symptomatic pulmonary embolism. In 7/262 treatments (2.7 %) symptomatic localized phlebitis occurred and in 2/262 (0.8 %) patients an ascending phlebitis beyond the sclerotherapy region was observed. Based on current data, foam sclerotherapy can be regarded as safe in patients with anamnestic thromboembolism when co-treated with compression therapy (23 - 32 mmHg) and enoxaparin 40 mg once per day for 3 days post sclerotherapy. The current study is the first with a standardized regime. In view of the limitations of this study there should be further randomized controlled trials.