Chemical research in toxicology

Biotransformation pathways of biocides and pharmaceuticals in freshwater crustaceans based on structure elucidation of metabolites using high resolution mass spectrometry.

PMID 23391280


So far, there is limited information on biotransformation mechanisms and products of polar contaminants in freshwater crustaceans. In the present study, metabolites of biocides and pharmaceuticals formed in Gammarus pulex and Daphnia magna were identified using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Different confidence levels were assigned to the identification of metabolites without reference standards using a framework based on the background evidence used for structure elucidation. Twenty-five metabolites were tentatively identified for irgarol, terbutryn, tramadol, and venlafaxine in G. pulex (21 via oxidation and 4 via conjugation reactions) and 11 metabolites in D. magna (7 via oxidation and 4 via conjugation reactions), while no evidence of metabolites for clarithromycin and valsartan was found. Of the 360 metabolites predicted for the four parent compounds using pathway prediction systems and expert knowledge, 23 products were true positives, while 2 identified metabolites were unexpected products. Observed oxidative reactions included N- and O-demethylation, hydroxylation, and N-oxidation. Glutathione conjugation of selected biocides followed by subsequent reactions forming cysteine conjugates was described for the first time in freshwater invertebrates.