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Advances in experimental medicine and biology

Comparative evaluation of taurine and thiotaurine as protectants against diabetes-induced nephropathy in a rat model.


PMID 23392948

Abstract

Taking into account the proven effectiveness of antioxidants in preventing experimentally induced diabetes in laboratory animals, this study was carried out with the specific purpose of comparing the effectiveness of two known antioxidants, the β-aminosulfonate taurine (TAU) and β-aminothiosulfonate thiotaurine (TTAU), in preventing biochemical, functional and histological alterations indicative of -diabetic nephropathy. In the study, streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, orally) was used to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sprague-Dawley rats. Starting on day 15 and continuing up to day 56, the rats received a daily single 2.4 mmol/kg oral dose of a sulfur-containing compound (TAU or TTAU) or 4 U/kg subcutaneous dose of isophane insulin (INS). Rats not receiving any treatment served as controls. After obtaining a 24 h urine sample, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation on day 57, and their blood and kidneys immediately collected. Diabetic rats exhibited marked hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, hypoproteinemia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, hypercreatinemia, increased plasma TGF β(1), lipid peroxidation, plasma and kidney nitrite, and urine output; decreased glutathione redox status in plasma and kidney, decreased urine Na(+) and K(+), proteinuria and hypocreatinuria. Without exceptions, all the treatment compounds were found to markedly and variously attenuate these changes. Confirmation of protection by INS, TAU and TTAU was provided by the results of histological examination of kidney sections and which showed a more normal appearance than sections from diabetic animals. In most instances protection by TTAU was about equal to that by INS but greater than that by TAU.