Nucleic acids research

DNA damage signaling induced by the G-quadruplex ligand 12459 is modulated by PPM1D/WIP1 phosphatase.

PMID 23396447


The triazine derivative 12459 is a potent G-quadruplex ligand that triggers apoptosis or delayed growth arrest, telomere shortening and G-overhang degradation, as a function of its concentration and time exposure to the cells. We have investigated here the DNA damage response induced by 12459 in A549 cells. Submicromolar concentrations of 12459 triggers a delayed Chk1-ATR-mediated DNA damage response associated with a telomeric dysfunction and a G2/M arrest. Surprisingly, increasing concentrations of 12459 leading to cell apoptosis induced a mechanism that bypasses the DNA damage signaling and leads to the dephosphorylation of Chk1 and γ-H2AX. We identified the phosphatase Protein Phosphatase Magnesium dependent 1D/Wild-type P53-Induced Phosphatase (PPM1D/WIP1) as a factor responsible for this dephosphorylation. SiRNA-mediated depletion of PPM1D/WIP1 reactivates the DNA damage signaling by 12459. In addition, PPM1D/WIP1 is activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by 12459. ROS generated by 12459 are sufficient to trigger an early DNA damage in A549 cells when PPM1D/WIP1 is depleted. However, ROS inactivation by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment does not change the apoptotic response induced by 12459. Because PPM1D expression was recently reported to modulate the recruitment of DNA repair molecules, our data would suggest a cycle of futile protection against 12459, thus leading to a delayed mechanism of cell death.