Toxicology and industrial health

Exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin, a synthetic pyrethroid, increases reactive oxygen species production and induces genotoxicity in rat peripheral blood.

PMID 23406951


Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid with a broad spectrum of insecticidal and acaricidal activities used to control a wide range of insect pests in a variety of applications. However, there is little known about its adverse effects, in particular those related to its genotoxicity in humans. To elucidate the genotoxicity mechanisms of LTC, the micronuclei (MN) frequencies, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), erythrocyte osmotic fragility, nitrite (NO) formation, protein carbonyl (PCO) levels and malondialdehyde (MDA) production were evaluated for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days. Our results show that exposure rat to LTC (1/10DL50 = 6.23 mg/kg) for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days induced a noticeable genotoxic effect in rat peripheral blood evidenced by a significant increase in the frequency of MN only at day 21 of treatment. Significant differences between the two groups were observed in erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Further, a significant (p < 0.01) increase in ROS contents, NO formation, PCO levels and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes were observed at different times of treatments, suggesting the implication of oxidative stress in its toxicity. These results confirm the genotoxic and the pro-oxidant effects of LTC in rat peripheral blood.