Chemistry & biodiversity

Seasonal variation on the contents of coumarin and kaurane-type diterpenes in Mikania laevigata and M. glomerata leaves under different shade levels.

PMID 23418176


Coumarin (1) and kaurane-type diterpenes are considered the bioactive constituents of Mikania glomerata and M. laevigata, used in Brazil to treat respiratory affective disorders. The seasonal variation of 1, ortho-coumaric acid (2), benzoylgrandifloric acid (3), cinnamoylgrandifloric acid (4), and kaurenoic acid (5) in leaves of both species, cultivated in full sunlight and under shade levels of 40 and 80%, was quantified by HPLC. Compound 2 was detected solely in M. laevigata in concentrations below the limit of quantification. Coumarin was not found in M. glomerata, whereas its concentration reached 0.94±0.24% (w/w) in M. laevigata farmed in summer under 80% shading. Both Mikania species produced higher amounts of kaurane diterpenes when cultivated in plenty of sunlight. Hence, maximum contents of 1 are reached in M. laevigata cultivated under high shading, but with reduced concentrations of 3-5. Conversely, M. glomerata should be cultivated under full sunlight and harvested in winter for highest concentrations of kaurane-type diterpenes.