Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics

Effects of itraconazole, dexamethasone and naringin on the pharmacokinetics of nadolol in rats.

PMID 23419354


The aim of the present study was to clarify the involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) 1a5 in the pharmacokinetics of nadolol (NDL), a non-metabolized hydrophilic β-adrenoceptor blocker, in rats. Pretreatment with itraconazole (ICZ, P-gp inhibitor, 50 mg/kg) for 30 min before oral administration of NDL (10 mg/kg) significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC₀₋∞)of NDL by 1.7-fold compared with control. Intragastric administration of dexamethasone (DEX, 8 mg/kg) for 4 consecutive days increased P-gp level in the intestine and the liver. In line with this, DEX pre-treatment decreased maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of NDL by 28% of control. To inhibit the intestinal Oatp1a5, naringin (NRG, 0.145 mg/kg) was preadministered orally for 30 min before the oral administrations of NDL or celiprolol (CEL, 10 mg/kg, Oatp1a5 substrate). Although NRG markedly reduced C(max) and AUC₀₋∞ of CEL by 60% and 65% of control, respectively, little difference was observed in the plasma concentration of NDL between NRG and control. These results suggest that P-gp is greatly involved in the pharmacokinetics of NDL, while the involvement of Oatp1a5 in the pharmacokinetics of NDL may be less than that of celiprolol in rats.

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Celiprolol for peak identification, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
C20H33N3O4 · HCl