Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology

Frequent promoter hypermethylation of tachykinin-1 and tachykinin receptor type 1 is a potential biomarker for head and neck cancer.

PMID 23420374


The aim of this study was to define TAC1 and TACR1 methylation profiles for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) tumors at diagnosis and follow-up and to evaluate their prognostic significance and value as a biomarker of recurrence. TAC1 and TACR1 expression was measured in a panel of cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR. The TAC1 and TACR1 promoter methylation status was determined by quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Methylation was associated with TAC1 and TACR1 transcription inhibition. TAC1 methylation in 49/100 (49 %) of HNSCC tumor specimens significantly correlated with p16 methylation (P = 0.010), E-cadherin methylation (P = 0.041), galanin methylation (P = 0.037), and disease-free survival (P = 0.002). Stage III and IV patients manifesting TAC1 hypermethylation had significantly shorter survivals than did patients without TAC1 methylation (P = 0.022). TACR1 methylation in 34/100 (34 %) cases was significantly correlated with galanin methylation (P = 0.014) and GALR1 methylation (P = 0.004). TAC1 promoter hypermethylation was statistically correlated with reduced disease-free survival (log-rank test, P = 0.002). In multivariate logistic-regression analysis, methylation of TAC1 and of the gene pair TAC1 and TACR1 was associated with an odds ratio for recurrence of 3.35 (95 % CI, 1.37-8.19; P = 0.008) and 5.09 (95 % CI, 1.44-18.02; P = 0.011), respectively. CpG hypermethylation is a likely mechanism of TAC1 and TACR1 gene inactivation, supporting the hypothesis that TAC1 and TACR1 play a role in the tumorigenesis of HNSCC and that this hypermethylation may serve as an important biomarker.

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Neurokinin A, ≥97% (HPLC)